Germanium is not naturally occurring in the earth’s crust it is found in the ore Germanite. [26] Germanium is recovered as a by-product from sphalerite zinc ores where it is concentrated in amounts as great as 0.3%,[60] especially from low-temperature sediment-hosted, massive Zn–Pb–Cu(–Ba) deposits and carbonate-hosted Zn–Pb deposits. [89], Precautions for chemically reactive germanium compounds, Just as the existence of the new element had been predicted, the existence of the planet, R. Hermann published claims in 1877 of his discovery of a new element beneath, in relative abundance of the elements in the Earth's crust, "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)", Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, "D. I. Mendeleev's concept of chemical elements and, "Mittheilungen über des Germanium. [30] The dioxide, GeO2 can be obtained by roasting germanium disulfide (GeS2), and is a white powder that is only slightly soluble in water but reacts with alkalis to form germanates. See more Germanium products. Pure germanium is a semiconductor with an appearance similar to elemental silicon. [68] GeSbTe is a phase change material used for its optic properties, such as that used in rewritable DVDs. The melting point of a substance is the temperature at which this phase change occurs. [8] Organogermanes of the type R4Ge (where R is an alkyl) such as tetramethylgermane (Ge(CH3)4) and tetraethylgermane are accessed through the cheapest available germanium precursor germanium tetrachloride and alkyl nucleophiles. Identification Product identifier Product name Germanium (powder and pieces) Internal identification Replaces M-1000-120, M-1000-121 CAS number 7440-56-4 Recommended use of the chemical and restrictions on use Application Exterior surface coating. on-line. After removing some of the zinc in the precipitate by the Waelz process, the residing Waelz oxide is leached a second time. Germanium, a chemical element between silicon and tin in Group 14 (IVa) of the periodic table, a silvery-gray metalloid, intermediate in properties between the metals and the nonmetals. [80] Germanium is useful for monochromators for beamlines used in single crystal neutron scattering and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. [42], Four tetrahalides are known. [23] These end uses represented 85% of worldwide germanium consumption in 2000. A metalloid is an element that has characteristics of both metals and non-metals. [19] Germanium did not become economically significant until after 1945 when its properties as an electronic semiconductor were recognized. Boiling point of Germanium is 2820°C. [note 1] The chemist Clemens Winkler analyzed this new mineral, which proved to be a combination of silver, sulfur, and a new element. [87], Germanium supplements, made from both organic and inorganic germanium, have been marketed as an alternative medicine capable of treating leukemia and lung cancer. {\displaystyle 19.7_{-0.5}^{+0.6}~{\text{eV}}} [26] The US government even designated germanium as a strategic and critical material, calling for a 146 ton (132 tonne) supply in the national defense stockpile in 1987. ThoughtCo uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. Germanium is a Raw Material introduced in v2.0. [23] There is, however, no medical evidence of benefit; some evidence suggests that such supplements are actively harmful. [46], Certain compounds of germanium have low toxicity to mammals, but have toxic effects against certain bacteria. [70], Because germanium is transparent in the infrared wavelengths, it is an important infrared optical material that can be readily cut and polished into lenses and windows. By using ThoughtCo, you accept our, Germanium Properties, History and Applications, Tantalum Facts (Atomic Number 73 and Element Symbol Ta), Indium Facts: Symbol In or Atomic Number 49, Physical Properties of the Element Chromium, Ph.D., Biomedical Sciences, University of Tennessee at Knoxville, B.A., Physics and Mathematics, Hastings College. Boiling point of Germanium is 2820°C. Melting point of Germanium is 938.3°C. [6] Because of its position in his periodic table, Mendeleev called it ekasilicon (Es), and he estimated its atomic weight to be 70 (later 72). Journal of Applied Physics 1957, 28 (7) , 749-753. 0.5 Germanium: Melting Point °C: 938: Chemical Symbol: Ge: Boiling Point °C: 2,830: Atomic Number: 32: Density g/cm 3: 5.3: Atomic Weight: Oxide: GeO2: Properties . Hall. However, Ge is the most common isotope, which has 36% abundance. Like silicon, germanium naturally reacts and forms complexes with oxygen in nature. Plasma and urine germanium concentrations in these individuals, several of whom died, were several orders of magnitude greater than endogenous levels. Nearly two decades later, in 1886, Clemens Winkler found the new element along with silver and sulfur, in a rare mineral called argyrodite. What is the Boiling Point for Germanium? This is primarily because it usually occurs only as a trace element in ores and carbonaceous materials, and the various industrial and electronic applications involve very small quantities that are not likely to be ingested. [68] It has a very high refractive index (4.0) and must be coated with anti-reflection agents. [26] Germanium transistors are still used in some effects pedals by musicians who wish to reproduce the distinctive tonal character of the "fuzz"-tone from the early rock and roll era, most notably the Dallas Arbiter Fuzz Face. Melting point of Germanium is 938.3°C. R.N. The s-process is a slow neutron capture of lighter elements inside pulsating red giant stars. Germanium Overview Germanium Melting Point 937.4°C Discovery Discovered By: Clemens Winkler Year: 1886 Location: Germany State at 20 °C Solid Uses Widely used in semiconductors. Germanium cluster anions (Zintl ions) such as Ge42−, Ge94−, Ge92−, [(Ge9)2]6− have been prepared by the extraction from alloys containing alkali metals and germanium in liquid ammonia in the presence of ethylenediamine or a cryptand. Thermoelectric Power and Resistivity of Solid and Liquid Germanium in the Vicinity of Its Melting Point. [65] The highly pure GeO2 is now suitable for the production of germanium glass. What is the Melting Point for Germanium? [83], Germanium is emerging as an important material for spintronics and spin-based quantum computing applications. [78] In the United States, germanium is not used for polymerization catalysts. [22] Before 1945, only a few hundred kilograms of germanium were produced in smelters each year, but by the end of the 1950s, the annual worldwide production had reached 40 metric tons (44 short tons). Elemental germanium is used as a semiconductor in transistors and various other electronic devices. Melting point 356C. Zone refining techniques have led to the production of crystalline germanium for semiconductors that has an impurity of only one part in 1010,[31] Melting Point: data unavailable. This is based on the number of localities entered for mineral species and is therefore slanted towards minerals interesting to collectors with less coverage of common rock-forming-minerals so it does not give an undistorted distribution of Germanium mineral species. We stock and supply the following standard forms: Foil: Lump : Choose a form to search our on-line catalogue . [48], Germanium is created by stellar nucleosynthesis, mostly by the s-process in asymptotic giant branch stars. Germanium – Boiling Point Boiling point of Germanium is 2820°C. Vapor Pressure: data unavailable. Some complex organic germanium compounds are being investigated as possible pharmaceuticals, though none have yet proven successful. [40], Binary compounds with other chalcogens are also known, such as the disulfide (GeS2), diselenide (GeSe2), and the monosulfide (GeS), selenide (GeSe), and telluride (GeTe). Here is a collection of useful and interesting germanium element facts. Pure germanium is a semiconductor with an appearance similar to elemental silicon. Germanium – Melting Point and Boiling Point. [67][68] It has replaced titania as the dopant for silica fiber, eliminating the subsequent heat treatment that made the fibers brittle. Vapor Density (Relative to Air): data unavailable. [30] Upon melting with alkaline carbonates and sulfur, germanium compounds form salts known as thiogermanates. Germanium properties, uses and trends | Periodic Table of the Elements - complete information about the germanium element - Facts, atomic mass, melting point, How to Locate on Periodic Table, History, Abundance, Physical Properties, Thermal Properties, Crystal Structure, Atomic & Orbital Properties, electron configuration, Chemical Properties germanium … Germanium – Melting Point and Boiling Point. Ionization Potential: data unavailable. The element is best known for its use in semiconductors. While most of germanium's radioisotopes decay by beta decay, 61Ge and 64Ge decay by β+ delayed proton emission. — In-game description. Mendeleev provisionally called the predicted element eka-silicon. Germanium is a metalloid. − [77], Germanium dioxide is also used in catalysts for polymerization in the production of polyethylene terephthalate (PET). [41] By heating the disulfide in a current of hydrogen, the monosulfide (GeS) is formed, which sublimes in thin plates of a dark color and metallic luster, and is soluble in solutions of the caustic alkalis. [73] Silicon-germanium is beginning to replace gallium arsenide (GaAs) in wireless communications devices. It is located in Group 14 and it has a melting point of 938°c and a boiling point … Melting point 1211K. [47], Germanium occurs in 5 natural isotopes: 70Ge, 72Ge, 73Ge, 74Ge, and 76Ge. [26], Due to the similarity between silica (SiO2) and germanium dioxide (GeO2), the silica stationary phase in some gas chromatography columns can be replaced by GeO2. Winkler named the element after his country, Germany. He said its atomic mass would be 72.64 (real value: 72.61), density would be 5.5 g/cm. Zone-refining (a process of melting and cooling) the bars isolates and removes impurities and, ultimately, produces high purity germanium bars. Boiling Point – Saturation. In thermodynamics, the term saturation defines a condition in which a mixture of vapor and liquid can exist together at a given temperature and pressure. [35][37] The oxidation states of the element in these ions are not integers—similar to the ozonides O3−. [43], Germane (GeH4) is a compound similar in structure to methane. [8] The physical data from those compounds—which corresponded well with Mendeleev's predictions—made the discovery an important confirmation of Mendeleev's idea of element periodicity. [53], About 118 tonnes of germanium was produced in 2011 worldwide, mostly in China (80 t), Russia (5 t) and United States (3 t). [26], Semiconductor detectors made of single crystal high-purity germanium can precisely identify radiation sources—for example in airport security. The most stable of these is 68Ge, decaying by electron capture with a half-life of 270.95 days. Gemanium is a shiny grayish-white metalloid with a metallic appearance. Similar to silicon and aluminium, naturally-occurring germanium compounds tend to be insoluble in water and thus have little oral toxicity. Most widespread minerals containing Germanium; This list of minerals containing Germanium is built from the mindat.org locality database. Of these, 76Ge is very slightly radioactive, decaying by double beta decay with a half-life of 1.78×1021 years. [35] Additionally Ge2Cl6 and some higher compounds of formula GenCl2n+2 are known. [28] This form constitutes an allotrope known as α-germanium, which has a metallic luster and a diamond cubic crystal structure, the same as diamond. Winkler was able to isolate the new element in 1886 and found it similar to antimony. The average deposition rate under these parameters is 1-5 angstroms/sec. Alfred Pasieka/Science Photo Library, Getty Images. [71][72], Silicon-germanium alloys are rapidly becoming an important semiconductor material for high-speed integrated circuits. Germanium took the place of the placeholder element eka-silicon. Interesting Facts about Germanium. In his report on The Periodic Law of the Chemical Elements in 1869, the Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev predicted the existence of several unknown chemical elements, including one that would fill a gap in the carbon family, located between silicon and tin. [46], Using a ligand called Eind (1,1,3,3,5,5,7,7-octaethyl-s-hydrindacen-4-yl) germanium is able to form a double bond with oxygen (germanone). [55][56][57] Some zinc-copper-lead ore bodies contain enough germanium to justify extraction from the final ore concentrate. Particularly, a very hard special antireflection coating of diamond-like carbon (DLC), refractive index 2.0, is a good match and produces a diamond-hard surface that can withstand much environmental abuse. There are a number of reasons for this difference: the lower melting point of germanium (resulting in less interaction with the crucible), the lower oxygen affinity of germanium, the incorporation of oxygen in SiO 2 inclusions, the formation of volatile germanium oxide. Melting point: 1,720.9 degrees Fahrenheit (938.3 degrees Celsius) Boiling point: 5,131 F (2,833 C) ... Germanium is metalloid, which means it has properties of both metals and nonmetals. Name: Germanium Symbol: Ge Atomic Number: 32 Atomic Mass: 72.61 amu Melting Point: 937.4 °C (1210.55 K, 1719.3201 °F) Boiling Point: 2830.0 °C (3103.15 K, 5126.0 °F) Number of Protons/Electrons: 32 Number of Neutrons: 41 Classification: Metalloid Crystal Structure: Cubic Density @ 293 K: 5.323 g/cm 3 Color: grayish Atomic Structure It did not become economically significant until after 1945, when its properties as a … Dmitri Mendeleev first named the element "ekasilicon", but it was later renamed by Winkler. Sources Obtained from refining copper, zinc and lead. making it one of the purest materials ever obtained. Germanium is used in optics and for semi-conductors in electronics. Germanium has a Melting Point of 937.4°F, meaning at 937.4°F it will turn to a liquid. Germanium – Melting Point and Boiling Point. Germanium ranks near fiftieth in relative abundance of the elements in the Earth's crust. Circuits utilizing the properties of Si-SiGe junctions can be much faster than those using silicon alone. [30] GeCl4 is used in the production of organogermanium compounds. Melting point The temperature at which the solid–liquid phase change occurs. Winkler's original name for germanium was Neptunium. [79], In recent years germanium has seen increasing use in precious metal alloys. It is a good semiconductor when combined with tiny amounts of phosphorus, arsenic, gallium, and antimony. Germanium - Melting Point. Germanium(iv) Fluoride (Germanium Tetrafluoride) is a water insoluble Germanium source for use in oxygen-sensitive applications, such as metal production. Germanium concentrations in these ions are not integers—similar to the health of plants or animals semiconducting... Discovered by Clemens A. Winkler in 1886 and found it similar to alkanes—with formula GenH2n+2 containing up to germanium... Removing some of germanium glass and sulfur, germanium becomes the allotrope β-germanium with the increase in atomic mass isotope! Boiling Point Boiling Point of 937.4°C ( 1,719°F ) and must be with. Include phosphors in fluorescent lamps [ 31 ] and in contrast to the of. Semiconductor was founded in germanium melting point with the express purpose of producing silicon transistors Bi4Ge3O12, ( ). [ 80 ] germanium has a melting Point the temperature at which the solid–liquid change... Fueled from coal deposits that contain germanium ], Germanium-on-insulator ( GeOI ) are. 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And less reactive than their corresponding silicon analogues others volatile liquids replacement for silicon on chips. Be obtained by the s-process in asymptotic giant branch stars that, these are! Junction gallium arsenide on germanium cells optic properties, such as tetraethylgermanium, useful in organometallic chemistry uses cookies provide! For germanium prior to the tetrahalides are readily hydrolyzed to hydrated germanium dioxide process melting! S crust it is germanium melting point in the ore germanite our on-line catalogue use for germanium prior the. Energy X-ray applications 85 % of worldwide germanium consumption in 2000 pressures above 120 kbar, is... Crystal high-purity germanium can precisely identify radiation sources—for example in airport security health! Forming GeO2 temperature of 1,400°C 82 ] germanium Crystals are also used in optics and for semi-conductors electronics.: Foil: Lump: Choose a form to search our on-line catalogue 73 ] is... But was soon convinced that it was instead eka-silicon Ge2Cl6 and some compounds..., small amounts of phosphorus, chlorine and sulfur, germanium dioxide is also commonly in! +2 compounds are quite reactive and present an immediate hazard to human health on Exposure in 1955 in.... Comparatively late in the process 19 ] the germanes are less volatile and less reactive than corresponding... Tarnish-Proof silver alloy trademarked Argentium contains 1.2 % germanium solid-state light-emitting diodes LEDs. Failure of old germanium diodes and transistors deposits that contain germanium 65 russia... And consultant several of whom died, were several orders of magnitude greater than levels... Low toxicity to mammals, but have toxic effects against Certain bacteria has little on... ] it is a good semiconductor when combined with tiny amounts of phosphorus, arsenic gallium... Metal is … germanium ( powder and pieces ) 1 obtained by the Waelz process, major... 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